By C. G. Lyons, S. McLintock, Nora H. Lumb
A Concise Text-Book of natural Chemistry is a convenient advisor for chemistry scholars getting ready for complex point certificate. the character of natural chemistry, in comparison with that of inorganic chemistry, is essentially the chemistry of carbon. The e-book specializes in the preparations and alterations of the atoms contained in the carbon molecules. The molecular formulation of natural compounds are hence studied, together with alkanes and their derivatives referred to as aliphatic or fatty acids, in addition to the hydrocarbons of the benzene sequence and derivatives referred to as the fragrant compounds. The aliphatic amines as derivatives of ammonia caused by the substitution of the hydrogen atoms via alkyl teams are defined. The formulation for methane, even though at this time is handy for basic reasons, is proven to be now not a real consultant of the particular association within which 4 H radicals are grouped round the carbon atom. Castor oil, linseed, and different drying oils also are tested by way of their glyceride (of different lengthy chain unsaturated acids) content material. Carbohydrates, divided as monosaccharides, polysaccharides, and glycosides, are mentioned as to their empirical composition. the various tools and reagents for synthesizing natural compounds are defined, utilizing the straightforward aliphatic natural compounds to illustrate. The fragrant sequence of natural compounds, resembling the benzene sequence of hydrocarbons, and the fragrant sulfonic acids, phenols, and ethers are then analyzed. This e-book is appropriate for college kids of natural chemistry and for these getting ready for assessments within the basic certificates of schooling and for the normal nationwide certificates. Readers concerning agricultural, scientific, pharmaceutical, and technological and technical classes can locate this advisor correct.
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Esters are also obtained by the reaction of alcohols with acid chlorides (cf. acetylation, p. 94). CH3COCI + C2H5OH = CH3COOC2H5 + HCl 46 A CONCISE TEXT-BOOK OF O R G A N I C C H E M I S T R Y (5) Dehydration to ethers and ethylene. Alcohols react with dehydrating agents to form either ethers or ethylenic compounds. With ethyl alcohol and concentrated sulphuric acid, the products are diethyl ether at 140°C with the alcohol in excess, or ethylene at 170°C with excess sulphuric acid. CH3CH2OH - CHgiCHg + H2O These reactions are the basis of the laboratory preparations of ether and ethylene and the manufacturing process for ether.
C H i C H + HBr = CH2:CHBr Vinyl bromide CH2:CHBr + HBr = C H 3 C H B r 2 Ethylidene dibromide The products formed by the addition to acetylene of halogens and halogen acids in the presence of catalysts are manufactured for use as solvents. (3) Addition of hydrogen, Acetylenic compounds add on hydrogen in the presence of a catalyst. C H i C H + Hs = CH2:CH2 CH2:C1H2 ^2 ~ CHß'CHß (4) Conversion to aldehydes. When acetylene is passed into warm, dilute sulphuric acid in the presence of a catalyst, a series of reactions occurs which leads to the formation of acetaldehyde.
HCOOCH2 CH2 CHOH CH2OH - CH + H2O + CO2 CH2OH Allyl alcohol (3) The nitric acid esters of glycerol are highly explosive (nitroglycerin). T H E A L I P H A T I C ETHERS (FUNCTIONAL GROUP -7C—O—C(-) Ethers may be regarded as derived from water by replacing both the hydrogen atoms with organic groups. The groups replacing the two hydrogen atoms need not be identical. Ethers formed from two dissimilar groups are known as mixed ethers in distinction to simple ethers where the two groups are the same.