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By Valerie Coulter

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The three-dimensional shape of the tetrahedral carbon can be represented by drawing a normal line for bonds in the plane of the page. Bonds going behind the page are represented by hatched wedge, and bonds coming out the page are represented by a solid wedge: Fig. Tetrahedral shape of an sp3 hybridised carbon. Sigma Bonds A half-filled sp3 hybridised orbital from one carbon atom can be used to form a bond with a half-filled sp3 hybridised orbital from another carbon atom. In figure(a) given below the major lobes of the two sp3 orbitals overlap directly leading to a strong σ bond.

G: 1. Functional groups with sp3 hybridisation are tetrahedral. 2. Functional groups having sp2 hybridisation are planar. 3. Functional groups with sp hybridisation are linear. g. aromatic rings, alkenes, alkynes, aldehydes and ketones, carboxylic acids, esters, amides, acid chlorides, acid anhydrides, nitriles, etc. Alkanes and Cycloalkanes Definitions Alkanes: These are the open chain organic compounds having the general formula Cn H2n + 2. In them all the bonds are σ-bonds and so they are also called saturated hydrocarbons.

2px and 2pz) to form three sp2 hybridised orbitals of equivalent energy. The remaining 2py orbital remains unaffected. The energy of each hybridised orbital is greater than that of the original s orbital but less than that of the original p orbitals. The remaining 2p orbital (in this case the 2py orbital) remains at its original energy level: Fig. sp2 Hybridisation. e. 2s22px1 2p p ) to fit into the three hybridised sp2 orbitals and the remaining 2p orbital. The first three electrons are fitted into each of the hybridised orbitals according to Hund’s rule and they are all halffilled this leaves one electron still to place.

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