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By David L. Armstrong

Because the final variation of this e-book, released in 1983, the textual content has been rewritten and rearranged to provide an up-to-date evaluate of the topic. The emphasis is on offering a framework for figuring out the connection among health and wellbeing care and the society within which it happens

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2. The investigation and treatment environment places the patient in an abnormal situation in which the 'correct' behaviour is difficult to establish. On the one hand 'normal' behaviour is clearly abnormal in a mental hospital, 41 References and on the other hand abnormal behaviour merely fulfills the psychiatrist's predictions. An experiment conducted in a State hospital in the USA illustrates the argument (Rosenhan, 1973). The researcher and his co-workers all managed to get themselves admitted by reporting hallucinations the night before.

Gender There are two major gender differences in health status in our society which seem to be contradictory. 1. The mortality experience of men is far worse than women, women living on average about seven years longer than men. This suggests that maleness is a high risk factor for ill health. 2. The morbidity of women seems to be higher than that of men. Measuring morbidity is difficult (see Chapter 3), but according to at least three measures, namely surveys of self-reported illness, data on using health services (which is probably an acceptable indicator given that availability of services is relatively constant in any comparison between the sexes), and some morbidity surveys, women have more illnesses than men.

Early work therefore concentrated on identifying to what extent all depressive episodes could be related to external negative life events. Brown and his co-workers carried out an in-depth study of women in south London to relate life events to depressive disorder (Brown and Harris, 1978). They found a fairly clear relationship between experiencing a life event and the onset of a depressive disorder, though the influence of the life event on the illness also seemed to depend on several other 'vulnerability' factors which might increase the susceptibility of the women in the study to becoming depressed.

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