By Cesare Rossi
This ebook describes the innovations and designs of historical engineers who're the precursors of the current. The interval levels in general from three hundred B.C. to 1600 A.D. with a number of exceptions. the various oldest innovations are documented by way of archaeological reveals, frequently little or no identified, as a rule from Pompeii, Herculaneum and Stabiae and exhibit a shocking modernity of their conception.
Most of the innovations awarded within the first 4 elements of this e-book have been conceived as much as the past due Roman Empire and should be regarded as milestones, every one of their respective box. The 5th half concentrates on more moderen centuries. The 6th half offers with a few development building techniques.
Generally, for every of the offered innovations, 3 components of study and reference are supplied: written records (the classics), iconic references (coins, bas-reliefs, etc.) and archaeological findings.
The authors didn't write this publication for engineers in simple terms; therefore they describe the entire units with out assuming extensive technical wisdom. The authors’ major goal is to attempt to speak their enthusiasm for the innovations and the inventors of the previous and to give a contribution to the interesting research of the historical past of Engineering.
This moment variation comprises new themes and chapters which are of particular curiosity to engineers.
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Additional info for Ancient Engineers' Inventions: Precursors of the Present
Then the astrolabe is also briefly described. Some examples of how did these devices work are also presented. Introduction As already mentioned in the previous chapter, the measuring of distance (together with the measuring of mass and force) represent the ﬁrst step in the developing of science and technology. g. ) were very deeply interested in the study of geometry. It is also well-known that in building temples and towns an accurate measuring of distances is also essential. An impulse in this ﬁeld of knowledge was given during the Roman Empire.
3 is shown a meridian found at Hercolaneum, Italy. 2 Portable Sundials The portable sundial is a very ancient device; probably the Egyptian one showed in Fig. 4 is the oldest one. The manufacturing of portable sundials was signiﬁcantly developed during the Middle Ages. Portable sundials can be made in different shapes, in the following the diptych sundials and ring dials are presented. Fig. 3 Roman sundial found at Hercolaneum 44 4 Measuring Time Fig. 4 Egyptian portable sundial Fig. 5 Diptych sundial Diptych sundials are made by a couple of tablets joined by a hinge; a tin yarn is located between both the tablets’ ends, hence the yarn is tightened when the tablets are open and functions as a gnomon.
Since the hourglass only indicated the passage of a speciﬁc interval of time, like the modern day sports chronometer that can give the times but not the time, a method to measure time was required, but one that did not depend on sunlight. It has to be remembered that the word clepsydra indicates a water clock; in fact, this word comes from ancient Greek klepto = I tieve and udor = water. During the Roman Empire, within the space of a few decades, water clocks became a status symbol, an ostentation of wealth and distinction, without however leading to the frenetic pace of modern times.