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By Robert Liddiard

Замки одинадцатого и двенадцатого веков остаются одними из самых видимых символов англо-нормандского мира. Данный сборник впервые объединяет некоторые из наиболее значимых статей в исследованиях замков, при участии специалистов в области истории, археологии и исторических сооружений. Замки остаются спорной темой для научных дебатов, и здесь равный вес придается основополагающим статьям, которые определили изучение предмета, одновременно подчеркивая новые подходы к крепостям англо-нормандской аристократии. Исследования в данной книге следуют в диапазоне от обсуждений жилой и военной роли замка в архитектурной символике до королевского отношения к фортификации баронов. В результате исследование, которое предлагает углубленный анализ строительства замков в одиннадцатом и двенадцатом веках, также затрагивает место англо-нормандских замков в их более широком социальном, архитектурно-политическом контексте.

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So How Did He Get There? 31 Ellesmere 1129 The epitaph of Richard the Third King of England carved in bronze next to a monument to the same in [the church of] the friars minor in Leicester. Here I, whom Earth has shut under variegated marble, was called Richard the Third by an unjust voice; I was the defender of my fatherland, a paternal uncle on behalf of his nephews; I faithfully held the broken British kingdoms. For sixty days minus two, and two summers, I bore sceptres that were not mine. Bravely in battle, deservedly deserted by the English, King Henry the Seventh, to you I submitted And you, a pious man, thus honoured my bones at your own expense And you made a non‐king to be revered with the honour of a king.

Numerous food remains tell us about the diet of the medieval and early post‐medieval inhabitants. The bulk of their diet, as is common in pre‐modern times, consisted of cereals, including wheat, rye and barley. There is evidence from animal bones for the consumption of beef, lamb, pork, goose and even some rabbit and duck. Among the fish consumed were eel, trout, herring, cod, halibut and one example of a small shark or ray. Plant remains document that people were eating figs, grapes, blackberries, plums, apples, peas, beans and leeks.

As mentioned in Chapter 2, eighteenth‐century modifications to houses then facing St Martin’s church unearthed numerous bones in the area between the Greyfriars church and what is now Peacock Lane. This was perhaps the location of the friary’s cemetery. In 1349 Gilbert and Ellen Lavener sought permission from the Crown to donate a plot of land to the friary ‘for the enlargement of their house’. Otherwise, few large‐scale donors are known by name, although numerous surviving wills indicate that many people left money to all three of Leicester’s friaries.

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