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Extra resources for Approaches To Risk Management In Remediation Of Radioactively Contaminated Sites: Recommendations of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements ... : Issued October 15, 2004 (Ncrp R

Example text

Again, however, the first MCLs for radium and beta/gamma emitters were not based primarily on an assumption that lifetime risks from ingestion of radionuclides in drinking water should not exceed about 10–4. The revised drinking water standards for radionuclides (EPA, 2000b) also include a new MCL for uranium of 30 µg L–1, which is higher than the proposed MCL of 20 µg L–1 (EPA, 1991b) noted above. The MCL for uranium was based on a reassessment of the chemical toxicity of uranium in the kidney and a benefit-cost analysis.

2 REGULATIONS FOR REMEDIATION / 49 health and the environment are briefly summarized as follows. 19 Guidance issued in 1991 emphasized that remedial action usually is not warranted when the lifetime cancer risk estimated on the basis of scenarios for reasonable maximum exposure under conditions of current and future land use is <10–4, provided that drinking water standards are met in water resources (Clay, 1991). However, the guidance also stated that, depending on site-specific conditions, lower risk goals can be used as a basis for deciding that remedial action is warranted.

1 Bq L–1) should be used as an ARAR for protection of groundwater. 4 / 65 Decision Process in Decommissioning of Contaminated Sites This Section reviews the decision processes used by NRC under authority of AEA (1954) and by EPA under authority of CERCLA (1980) to determine acceptable remediations at radioactively contaminated sites. 1 NRC’s Decision Process Under the Atomic Energy Act. AEA (1954) vests all decision-making authority on matters concerning regulation of activities of NRC licensees in the five members of the Commission.

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